What if Alexander the Great didn't die at 32, but lived to an old age ?
Alexander the Great ( 356 - 284 BC)
Alexander kills Cleitus the Black in 328 BC.
Alexander's killing of Cleitus the Black in a drunken rage had a profound impact upon Alexander. Cleitus had saved Alexander's life at the Battle of the Granicus in 334 BC. After being talked out of considering suicide, Alexander vowed never to drink more than one cup of wine a day and rescind his efforts at demanding Persian style obsequiousness. Alexander's adoption of Persian customs such as proskynesis was seen as trying to deify himself and was not popular with his Greek soldiers.
In 326 BC, Alexander's soldiers refused to march further East, and began to long march to Susa where he planned an invasion of Arabia and seize its coastal cities to help him consolidate his empire and to continued into North Africa and attack Carthage.The Carthaginians had given aid to Tyre when Alexander had besieged it, and Alexander declared that one day he would punish them. The Italian tribes had killed Alexander's brother-in-law of Alexander,Alexander of Molossis, which he wanted revenge for and to protect the Greek colonies in southern Italy from Roman and Saminite attacks. Rome and Carthage, aware that they were now in Alexander's sights concluded a military alliance. After taking Arabian costal towns, Alexander gathered forces for an attack on Carthage from Egypt in 320. Alexander's force lay siege to Carthage for two years, when a plague broke out and resulted in a treaty between Alexander and Carthage. In 317 Alexander invaded Sicily and after a short war with Agathocles of Sicily, captured this important town before embarking for Italy.
Map of the Empire of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great vs Rome
It is well we have conquered these Romans. They certainly would have conquered the world had we not.
Alexander the Great
Of all of Alexander's enemies, the Romans were to give him the most trouble in conquering. With the Greek colonies in Italy, Carthagian navy and a two pronged attack from north and south Italy Alexander thought he would make short work of the Romans, but it would take six years to conquer them. To prevent guerrilla activity many Romans were eventually moved to the eastern part of the empire . Rome itself did not fall until after a two year siege. Alexander admired the Roman martial ability and many Roman soldiers who later became generals were incorporated into his army.
Consolidation of the Empire
The Great Temple of Knowledge in Athens
After the conquest of Rome by 310 BC, there was not organized state strong enough to challenged Alexander. His next operations were to extend the empire from Carthage, across North Africa to Iberia, while another army moved from Italy, across what is now southern France into Iberia. The conquest of most of Iberia took two years, which was handled by other generals, Alexander only traveled to Iberia once to Iberia to dedicate a temple to Heracles. Alexander now set about consolidating his empire . Great roads were built with post stations to connect the cities of the empire and brigandage in piracy were stamped out to promoted trade, key to success of the empire .He boasted a naked girl could walk from Susa to Alexandria the Westernmost (Now Lisbon) without being molested.
A great Temple of Knowledge was built in Athens to gather all the great minds of the empire where some inventions were made which were not to be seen again for hundreds of years, such as a cart propelled by a steam engine and movable type . Great voyages of exploration were launched, the most famous of which was that of the admiral Nearchus whose large fleet explored what is now Indonesia and went north and made contact with the Chu kingdom in China. The Greeks were impressed size and wealth of the Chinese cities and Chinese products such as ceramics and silk. Nearchus negotiated a treaty with the kingdom of Chu for trade and against the powerful kingdom of Qin. Alexander was preparing to led and invasion into China when hed died at Babylon while gathering forces. Another fleet, sent from Iberia and commanded by a Carthaginian to sail into the Atlantic to find Atlantis was never heard from again. Another Carthaginian led fleet was able to circumnavigate Africa.
Painting from a Chinese Chu Kingdom tomb showing a
Chinese official and Greek soldier
Collapse of the Empire
Despite his great conquest and dream of uniting the East and West in peace was destined not to last much longer than himself. He attempted to make too many great changes too quickly. Alexander became increasingly paranoid and great purges were carried out, which in many cases included all members of the family of those suspected. Alexander's megalomania increased and demanded to be worshiped as a living god. A great secret police force was set up, the King's Ears and Eyes to root out corruption and conspiracies. There were huge forced removals of populations to encourage 'greater understanding' and defend the marches of the empire which were greatly unpopular. Taxes were greatly increased to support the large army and great works, such as a canal in the Suez (never completed) , a monumental tomb for his father Philip in Pella. After Alexander's death in 284 BC, rebellions quickly arose and the empire broke apart.